al decision (Cass. soc. 13 nov. 2008, no 07-41700, Bull. civ. V, no 214) where a French national was initially hired in France as a salaried employee of L’Oréal for the successive roles of assistant (in December 1998) and assistant/logistics for the Asia market (in September 2000).
As of March 2002, the employee agreed, in a written document, to end her employment contract with L’Oréal in order to accept employment with L’Oréal China, a subsidiary under a local contract for the role of project manager/operations — a position she was to occupy as of Oct. 1, 2002. In September 2002, she disclosed her pregnancy to L’Oréal and L’Oréal China.
Three weeks after she failed to report to her new office in Shanghai, L’Oréal China said her employment contract was null and void following her complete disregard of the engagement. The expat turned back to L’Oréal, which refused to rehire her, citing a written agreement that stipulated the end of employment with the parent company when taking employment with a foreign subsidiary.
The case was brought to court in France and L’Oréal was found liable of a violation of the French labour code when terminating the employee and ordered to rehire the woman in a role similar to the one she held before termination.
The ruling was pronounced by the local chamber of the French Cour de Cassation, France’s supreme court. Interestingly, despite the written agreement between the parties, the court applied a larger legal protection overruling the termination of an employment contract even in the presence of appearing mutual consent. The court held L’Oréal was in breach of the labour code, which states:
"Whereas a salaried employee hired by the parent company was furnished to a foreign affiliate and where a labour contract was concluded with the latter, the parent company ensures his repatriation in a case of termination by the affiliate, and procures him a new employment comparable in importance to his previous role within the parent company.
"Notwithstanding the parent company’s intent to terminate this salaried employee, the provisions of the present paragraph are in force.
"The time spent by the salaried employee working at the affiliate is therefore taken into consideration when calculating the time for notice and indemnity payments connected to termination."
In sum, under French labour code, if the home employer refuses to repatriate the expat and terminates her employment, the employer will be subject to substantial monetary compensation.
There have been a number of situations where a French salaried employee was sent temporarily to a Canadian subsidiary of his French employer, but signed a local Canadian labour contract. In this case, strictly speaking, no expatriation occurred as the only contract executed was a local Canadian (or Quebec) contract.
However, in the event of termination of this local contract in Canada, where less stringent rules are applied respecting the termination of salaried employees with less than two years of seniority, French expatriates have filed complaints in France and were able to obtain compensation from the French company.
Other factors may also lead to employer liability. While the nature and type of contract are still of upmost importance, the law applicable to the contract as well as local laws superior to all employment contracts are just as important. When preparing an expatriation contract, an employer must be mindful of the larger legal context both in the home country and the receiving country.
For instance, in standard long-term expat situations, employers often include provisions stipulating the home country laws will apply in a case of a dispute, waiving the applicability of all local laws. However, such waiver provisions are often inapplicable, especially in the European Union.
Moreover, in most countries, even where the applicability of foreign law would be recognized, local regulations that are of a mandatory or "public order" nature will apply nonetheless.
In Canada, for instance, no employer can be exempt from minimum wage, working hours or vacation time regulations — even in the presence of a mutually agreed expat contract stipulating incompatible terms. Temporary workers under a local contract would also benefit from the same protection as local workers with respect to termination, up to the expiration of the work permit.
In a case of termination, as section 124 of the Act Respecting Labour Standards in Quebec is deemed to protect public order, it would likely represent an available recourse to a terminated expat even if the expat contract stipulates a waiver of local laws.
A failure to correctly identify the applicable laws in this context can also lead to the danger of double indemnity. As an illustration, labour laws in Mexico apply the doctrine of "immediacy," which roughly means an employer must terminate an employee for misconduct within one month of being informed of said cause for termination. Failure to do so could result in wrongful termination, giving ground to monetary compensation payable in Mexico. Such compensation could be added to any contractual compensation or liability due in virtue of the home country regulations. While such awkward situations can easily be prevented by experienced, local HR managers in the destination country, if the contract is managed by the home country, the risk is higher.
At the same time, as seen in the L’Oréal case, if a local employment contract in a foreign country stipulates severance of all ties from the home base and strictly limits the contract to a local jurisdiction, that does not render the home base employer immune to the applicability of home country regulations that are mandatory under the home labour law or in relevant laws ensuring the stability of public order.
Employers should also keep informed of any local rules that could potentially nullify provisions of a work contract or give a terminated employee an opportunity to sue. Terminating an employee always involves costs, but the emotional and monetary expenses associated with terminating an expat can be far greater. To minimize the risk, get sound advice so the end of an expatriation does not turn into the beginning of a long and costly journey.
Julie Lessard is a partner at BCF Business Law in Montreal. She can be reached at (514) 397-2260 or firstname.lastname@example.org.